MiG-19 Farmer, Mikoyan-Gurevich

MiG-19 Farmer

The MiG-19 was the USSR's first mass-built supersonic fighter. The highly swept, thin, sharply tapering wing was a remarkable characteristic. The MiG-19 proved to be a capable and sturdy combat aircraft, manoeuvrable and armed with powerful 30mm guns. The prototype of the aircraft first flew in 1953. It entered production in 1955. And, it was the primary fighter of the Russian air force in the fifties and early sixties. The MiG-19S was a simply fair- weather fighter, but the MiG-19P had limited all-weather capability. The People's Republic of China still manufactures the MiG-19 (under license) as the Jianjiji J-6. They allegedly completed over 4000, which would be about twice as many as the USSR built. The Russians began phasing out the MiG-19 in the sixties with it's predecessor the MiG-21 Fishbed.

Type: MiG-19 'Farmer'
Country: Soviet Union / Russia
Manufacturer: Mikoyan-Gurevich
Type: Fighter
Year: 1953
Crew: 1
Wing Span: 9.2 m
Length: 12.60 m
Height: 3.88 m
Empty: 5760 kg
Full: 9000 kg
Engine: 2 x Tumansky RD-9 turbojets
Power Output: 3040 kg
Top Speed: 1452 km/h
Service Ceiling: 16500m
Range: 1390 km
Gun: 3 x 30mm machine guns
Provisions: 10000 kg

Type: MiG-19SF
Function: fighter
Year: 1956
Crew: 1
Engines: 2 * 3300 kg Tumanski RD-9BF
Wing Span: 9.20 m
Length: 12.60 m
Height: 3.88 m
Wing Area: 25 m2
Empty Weight: 5760 kg
Max.Weight: 9100 kg
Speed: 1450 km/h
Ceiling: 17900 m
Armament: 3*g30mm b500 kg

Research done by Jack Powell

The MiG-19 Farmer was the first supersonic fighter built in the former USSR. The MiG-19 prototype made its first flight in September 1953 and was placed into production in 1955. It was the Soviet Union's primary fighter during the last half of the 1950's. Possibly as many as 10,000 MiG-19's, in various versions, were built by the Soviet Union, China, Poland, and Czechoslovakia. About 2,000 have been built in the People's Republic of China. Many other countries used the MiG-19, including Cuba, North Vietnam, North Korea, Iraq, and most of the Warsaw Pact nations. The Soviet Union phased out the MiG-19 in the early 1960s in favor of the more advanced MiG-21. However, the MiG-19 continued to be used by the other nations for many more years.

The F-6 (Jianjiji-6 Fighter aircraft 6) is the Chinese version of the MiG-19, which as of the mid-1990s was still in production in China. The J-6, which began flight tests in 1958, was China's first supersonic jet fighter. The F-6 has six attachment points for external stores (three on each wing). The outboard wing stations can carry a 250 kg bomb. The outboard wing stations can also carry a 760 or 400 liter drop tank or the CAA-1b AAM. The inboard wing stations can carry practice bombs or rocket pods with either 8 x 57mm, 16 x 57mm, or 7 x 90mm rockets.

The aircraft's wings are mid-mounted, swept-back, and tapered with blunt tips. There are wing fences and wide wing roots. There are two turbojet engines mounted inside the body and a single, round air intake in the nose. Note that what appears to be a single air intake is actually separated on the inside with each engine drawing air from its own intake. Two aircraft that have a single air intake with two engines are the Lightning and the G.91Y. There are dual exhausts. The fuselage is long, tube-shaped, and tapers slightly to the blunt nose and widens to the exhausts. There is a bubble canopy well forward on the nose. The tail fin is sharply swept-back and tapered with blunt tips. Flats high-mounted on the fuselage and swept-back with blunt tips.


On April 20, 1951, OKB-155 was given the order to develop MiG-17 into a new fighter called I-340 powered by two Mikulin AM-5 non-afterburning jet engines (a scaled-down version of the Mikulin AM-3) with 4,410 lbf (19.6 kN) of thrust. I-340 was supposed to attain 725 mph (1,160 km/h) at 6,560 ft (2,000 m) (Mach 0.97), 675 mph (1,080 km/h) at 33,000 ft (10,000 m) (Mach 1.0), climb to 33,000 ft (10,000 m) in 2.9 minutes, and have a service ceiling of no less than 55,000 ft (17,500 m). The new fighter, internally designated SM-1, was designed around the SI-02 airframe (a MiG-17 prototype) modified to accept two engines in a side-by-side arrangement. The aircraft was completed in March 1952. The aircraft suffered from poor cockpit pressurization and the engines proved temperamental with frequent flameouts and surges with rapid throttle movements. The engines were upgraded to AM-5A with 4,740 lbf (21.1 kN) of thrust each, which exceeded the power output of Klimov VK-1F in afterburner while providing better fuel economy. SM-1 was barely supersonic, reaching 745 mph (1,193 km/h) at 16,400 ft (5,000 m) - Mach 1.03. This performance was deemed insufficient for the new supersonic fighter and an afterburning version of the engines, AM-5F, was proposed. While not implemented, AM-5F served as the basis for the Tumansky RD-9 which powered production aircraft. Further development of the twin-engine concept resulted in a government request for I-360, internally designated SM-2, which was also powered by the AM-5F engines but featured a highly swept wing.

On August 15, 1953, the Mikoyan Gurevich OKB was given a new order to create a frontline fighter. The OKB was asked to create two designs -- a single-engined version with Klimov VK-7 and a twin-engine version with Mikulin AM-9F's. The twin-engine fighter, internally designated SM-9 but also assigned the production name MiG-19 was based on the earlier SM-2 prototype. The first airframe, SM-9/1 flew on January 5, 1954. The afterburner did not light in the first flight but in the second flight the aircraft reached Mach 1.25 at 26,400 ft (8,050 m). This was improved to Mach 1.44 in subsequent flights. Based on this promising performance, MiG-19 was ordered into production on February 17, 1954, even though government acceptance trials did not start until September of that year. The first production aircraft rolled off the assembly line in March of 1955.

Initial enthusiasm for the aircraft was dampened by several problems. The most alarming of these was the danger of mid-air explosion due to overheating of the fuselage fuel tanks located between the engines. Deployment of airbrakes at high speeds caused a high-G pitch up. Elevators lacked authority at supersonic speeds. The high landing speed of 145 mph (230 km/h), compared to 100 mph (160 km/h) of the MiG-15, combined with absence of a two-seat trainer version slowed the pilot transition to the type. Handling problems were addressed with the second prototype, SM-9/2, which added a third ventral airbrake and introduced all-moving tailplanes with a damper to prevent pilot-induced oscillations at subsonic speeds. It flew on September 16, 1954, and entered production as the MiG-19S.

A total of approximately 8,500 MiG-19s were made, mainly in the USSR but also in the People's Republic of China (as the Shenyang J-6) and Eastern Europe. The aircraft saw service with a number of other national airforces including those of Cuba, North Vietnam, Egypt, Pakistan and North Korea. The aircraft saw combat during the Vietnam War, the 1967 Six Day War and the 1971 Bangladesh War.

In the USSR it was superseded by the MiG-21. The Shenyang J-6 remained a staple of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force, and has also been developed into the Nanchang Q-5 (NATO reporting name 'Fantan') attack aircraft. Despite its age, the MiG-19 and its descendants exhibit good handling characteristics at low altitude and a surprisingly high rate of climb, and their heavy cannon armament (a one-second burst from 3x 30 mm NR-30 cannons had a projectile mass of 40 lb (18 kg) makes them formidable adversaries in close combat.
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